Since 2009, prevention of cervical cancer in the Netherlands consists of two measures: first, the Papanicolaou Screening (Pap smear), for which all women aged 30 to 60 years receive an invitation every 5 years, is free of charge . The second measure - the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination - was introduced in 2009, after the bivalent vaccine (Cervarix) targeting HPV 16 and 18 became available . Since there is a risk of contracting HPV from the first time of intercourse , the HPV vaccination program, which is managed by the Centre for Infectious Disease Control (CIb) and is only free of charge for 12-year old girls , ensures that most girls can be vaccinated before they become sexually active .
In Somalia, death due to cancer is relatively low (4 %) . However, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Somalia. It is estimated that nearly 3 million Somali women aged 15 years and older are at risk of developing cervical cancer. Each year, 967 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer and 546 die from this condition . The high incidence of cervical cancer deaths may be explained by the lack of preventive cervical cancer care, as HPV vaccinations and Pap smears are not implemented in Somalia [13, 14].
The young Somali women, between 18 and 21 years old, were recruited because they have been a part of the target group for the first (catch-up) HPV vaccination program, and they will be invited for Pap smears when they turn 30. The mothers who were over the age of 30 were recruited in this study because they had either been invited to receive Pap smears or because they had to decide whether their 12 year old daughters would receive the HPV vaccination.
This idea of eternal shame instills fear in young Somali women and mothers. The mothers use social control and education on Islamic norms as ways to promote chastity among daughters and to prevent stigma. With the cultural double sexual standard on the virginity of girls, the HPV vaccination is not considered necessary. Yet, some girls criticize it by expressing their discontent with the Somali cultural norm that stigmatizes girls who are sexually active before marriage.
As of 2019, the average UK consumer uses around 3GB of mobile data each month. This has been growing rapidly in the past few years (e.g. it was only 1.9GB in 2017 and 0.2GB in 2012). This means a 3GB data allowance should comfortably cover the average UK consumer's monthly data usage.
The original iPlayer service was launched in October 2005, undergoing a five-month trial by five thousand broadband users until 28 February 2006. iPlayer was heavily criticised for delay in its launch, rebranding and cost to BBC licence-fee payers because no finished product had been released after four years of development. A new improved iPlayer service then had another very limited user trial, which began on 15 November 2006. At various times during its development iPlayer was known as the Integrated Media Player (iMP), Interactive Media Player, and MyBBCPlayer.
The BBC and Microsoft had been unable to reach a deal to add the iPlayer to the Xbox 360 for a number of years, because Microsoft's strategy of charging for all content on its Xbox Live platform is incompatible with the BBC's public service remit. Microsoft wanted to ensure that only those paying for Xbox Live Gold accounts could access its added content services. The BBC is not legally allowed to charge the UK public for access to the iPlayer, as the access charges for it are included in the BBC licence fee already.
In 1991, the game was ranked the 12th best Amiga game of all time by Amiga Power. In 1992, The New York Times described the Macintosh version as having "brilliant graphics and excellent sound ... Sure, you could do all this years ago on a Commodore 64 or Atari 400. But those games never looked or sounded like this". Reviewing the Genesis version, GamePro praised the "extremely fluid" animation of the player character and commented that the controls are difficult to master but nonetheless very effective. Comparing it to the Super NES version, they summarized that "the Genesis version has better graphics, and the SNES has better music. Otherwise, the two are identical in almost every way ..." Electronic Gaming Monthly (EGM) likewise assessed the Genesis version as "An excellent conversion of the classic action game", and added that the game's challenging strategy and technique give it high longevity. EGM's panel of four reviewers each gave it a rating of 8 out of 10, adding up to an overall score of 32 out of 40.
Experts say girls and young women like Carry are often persuaded to try such sexual behavior for the wrong reasons -- to please a partner, to have sex without the risk of pregnancy or to preserve their virginity. But many don't understand the health consequences.
Indeed, another well-publicized 2005 study using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health found that teenagers who take \"virginity pledges\" were more likely to engage in oral or anal sex than nonpledging teens and less likely to use condoms once they became sexually active. 1e1e36bf2d